An abstract (summary) in the periodical is a source of information about the content of the article and results of the research.
The abstract (summary) performs the following functions:
- It makes possible to specify the basic content of a document, to determine its relevance and to decide whether or not to refer to the full text of the document;
- It provides information about the document and eliminates the need to read the full text of the document, if the document is a matter of peripheral interest for the reader;
- It is used in the information, including automated systems for retrieval of documents and information.
The abstract (summary) for the article must be:
- informative (it should avoid generalizations);
- substantial (it should display the main content of the article and research results);
- structured (it should follow the logic description of the results in the paper);
- compact (it should fit the limit of 120 to 250 words).
The abstract (summary) includes the following aspects of the article content:
- Object, purpose of work;
- Method or methodology of work;
- Area of results application;
Sequence of the article content may be changed. Author can start the article with describing the summary of results and conclusions.
In case if the subject, topic or object of the paper are not clear from the title of the article they should be specified.
It is appropriate to describe the work’s method or methodology if they are characterized by novelty or if they are of special interest from the standpoint of this work. For papers describing experimental work the data sources and the nature of their processing should be indicated.
The results must be described accurately and informatively. The basic theoretical and experimental results, evidence, the relationships and patterns that have been discovered are provided. However, the preference is given to new results and long-term data, important discoveries, findings that refute the existing theories and data, which, in the opinion of the author, are of practical importance.
The conclusions may be accompanied by recommendations, estimates, proposals, and hypotheses, described in the article.
The information contained in the title of the article should not be repeated in the text of the abstract (summary). Avoid unnecessary introductory phrases (e.g. "the author of the article considers ...").
Historical references, only if they do not constitute the main content of the document, the description of previously published works and generally known statements are not given in the abstract (summary).
The text of the abstract (summary) should contain the syntactic structures which are specific for the language of scientific and technical documents; the author must avoid the complex grammatical structures.
The abstract (summary) should include key words from the text of the article.